Indirect Speech / Πλάγιος λόγος


I n d i r ec t   S p e e c h / Πλάγιος λόγος

Υπάρχουν τρεις τύποι προτάσεων στον Πλάγιο λόγο.

A. STATEMENTS (δηλώσεις, ανακοινώσεις)

“Your brother is coming today” she said.

B. QUESTIONS (ερωτήσεις)

Is your brother coming today?” she said.

C. COMMANDS (διαταγές, προσταγές) ή REQUESTS (παρακλήσεις)

“Bring your brother today.” she said.

___________ . ____________

A. STATEMENTS:

Say / Tell

Όταν μετατρέπουμε μια πρόταση από τον ευθύ λόγο στον πλάγιο, κάνουμε μια σειρά από κινήσεις όπως:

1. Αν το εισαγωγικό ρήμα είναι SAY, τότε θα πούμε SAY.

Αν το εισαγωγικό ρήμα είναι SAY TO, τότε θα πούμε TELL.

Επομένως, “You’re late today,” she said

θα γίνει : She said ……. that I was late that day.

Αλλά, “You’re late today!” she said to him.

θα γίνει: She told him……. that he was late that day.

πχ.

Ευθύς λόγος: “I love my motherMary said.

Πλάγιος λόγος: Mary said that she loved her mother.

Ευθύς λόγος: “I can’t drive a lorryTom said to Peter.

Πλάγιος λόγος: Tom told Peter that he couldn’t drive a lorry.

Να προσέξετε:

Στις ερωτηματικές προτάσεις το εισαγωγικό ρήμα SAY γίνεται ASK

πχ.

Where is my pen?” Mary said.

Mary asked where her pen was.

Επίσης, οι λέξεις που αποτελούν την ερώτηση εισάγονται από το If ή Whether εάν η ερώτηση είναι στον ευθύ λόγο ή από τις ερωτηματικές λέξεις when, why, κτλ., που ανήκουν στην αρχική πρόταση.

πχ.

Can Mary drive a car?” Tim said.

Tim asked whether Mary could drive a car.

Why are you laughing?” George said.

George asked why I was laughing.

_________________________________________________

* Προσοχή !! *

Πάνω από όλα η Ερωτηματική λέξη στον ευθύ λόγο γίνεται Καταφατική στον πλάγιο λόγο.

πχ.

Is your brother coming today?” she said.

γίνεται:

She asked if his brother was coming that day. ΟΧΙ: She asked if was his brother coming that day.

και

Why were you late again yesterday? she said.

γίνεται:

She asked why he had been late again the previous day. ΟΧΙ She asked why had he been late ………. .

________________________________________________

Πίνακας αλλαγών στον Πλάγιο λόγο

The usual changes of tense are as follows:

* SIMPLE PRESENT / SIMPLE PAST:

I play / I played

* PRESENT PROGRESSIVE / PROGRESSIVE PAST:

I am playing / I was playing

* SIMPLE PAST / PAST PERFECT:

I played / I had played

* PROGRESSIVE PAST / PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:

I was playing / I had been playing

* PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PAST PERFECT SIMPLE:

I have played / I had played

* PRESENT PERFECT PROG/VE / PAST PER. PROGRESSIVE:

I have been playing / I had been playing

* FUTURE CONDITIONAL:

I will play / I would play

can play ………….. could play

must play ………… had to play

may play …………. might play

Αν το εισαγωγικό ρήμα είναι στον Αόριστο , τότε συγκεκριμένες άλλες λέξεις πρέπει να αλλάξουν έτσι ώστε να αναφέρονται παρελθόν κτλ.

* Today – that day

* tonight – that night

* tomorrow – the next day or the following day

* yesterday – the previous day/the day before

* this – that

* these – those

* here – there

* next time – the next time

* last time – the previous time

Exercise.

1. “I can’t hear a word,” the writer said.

___The writer said that he couldn’t hear a word.______

2. “This is a private conversation,” the young man said to the writer.

___The young man said that that was a private conversation._____

3. “I have just arrived by train”, said Aunt Lucy.

___Aunt Lucy said that she had just arrived by train.____

4. “Captain Alison will set out at eight o’clock tomorrow,” he said.

___He said that Captain Alison would set out at eight clock the following day.___

5. “I didn’t enjoy the play last night,” my friend said to me.

____My friend told me that he hadn’t enjoyed the play the previous night._____

* Να προσέξετε *

Στον ευθύ λόγο οι ομιλούμενες λέξεις από τον ομιλητή εισάγονται στον πλάγιο λόγο με το “that”

πχ. “We won’t go away this year”, said Mrs. Jones.

Mrs. Jones said that they wouldn’t go away that year.

Όπως είδατε από το προηγούμενο παράδειγμα oι αντωνυμίες που χρησιμοποιούνται στον ευθύ λόγο πρέπει να μπουν, και αυτές, στην σωστή αναφορά τους.

Επομένως , “You’re late today,” she said.

γίνεται:

She said that I (or he, she, they, we) …….

____________ . _____________

Β. QUESTIONS:

Οι αλλαγές εδώ είναι παρόμοιες με εκείνες των STATEMENTS αλλά χρειάζεται περισσότερη προσοχή.

Δηλαδή όπως και στα statements:

1. Οι αντωνυμίες αλλάζουν

2. Οι χρόνοι αλλάζουν αν το εισαγωγικό ρήμα είναι στον αόριστο

3. Οι χρονικές φράσεις αλλάζουν καθώς και οι δεικτικές λέξεις (this).

αλλά

4. Το εισαγωγικό ρήμα SAY γίνεται ASK

Exercise.

1. “Can we buy it on installments?” said Mrs. Frith.

____Mrs. Frith asked whether she could buy it on installments  (με δόσεις)._____

2. “Do you like it?” said her husband.

____Her husband asked her whether she liked it._____

3. “Have you any small change?” the conductor said to the passenger.

____The conductor asked the passenger if he had any small change._____

4. “May I have a glass of beer?” said Tim to Pat.

_____Tim asked Pat if he might have a glass of beer.____

5. “How is Jimmy feeling?” said the doctor.

____The doctor asked how Jimmy was feeling.___

_____________ . ______________

C. COMMANDS AND REQUESTS

Η διαδικασία αλλαγών εδώ είναι ακριβώς όπως στα Statements και Questions.

1. Οι αντωνυμίες αλλάζουν

2. Οι χρονικές προτάσεις και τα δεικτικά (this) αλλάζουν,

αλλά

3. Το εισαγωγικό ρήμα SAY

γίνεται:

Tell, Order, Instuct σε προτάσεις εντολών, διαταγών κτλ

και

Ask ή Beg σε προτάσεις με παρακλήσεις.

Σημείωση 1.

Αυτά τα ρήματα πρέπει πάντα να ακολουθούνται από έμμεσο αντικείμενο.

Αν δεν υπάρχει κάποιο στην αρχική πρόταση, δώστε εσείς ένα.

4. Το ρήμα εντολής στον ευθύ λόγο

γίνεται “TO” “INFINITIVE”’ απαρέμφατο

Σημείωση. 2 Το αρνητικό απαρέμφατο γίνεται: NOT  TO

Σημείωση. 3 Αυτό το απαρέμφατο δεν αλλάζει χρόνο ποτέ.

Επομένως: “Bring your brother tomorrow”, she said

γίνεται:

She told him to bring his brother the next day

και :

Please bring your brother tomorrow!she said

γίνεται:

She asked him to bring his brother the next day.

και:

Don’t forget your book!” she said.

γίνεται:

She told him not to forget his book.

Σημείωση.

Αν η άμμεση εντολή περιέχει μία δευτερεύουσα πρόταση, το πεπερασμένο ρήμα αυτής της πρότασης πρέπει να αλλάξει όπως και στα Statements.

Επομένως:

Don’t forget to return the book which you borrowed!said the librarian.

γίνεται:

The librarian told the young man not to forget to return the book which he HAD BORROWED.

Επαναλαμβάνω!!:

Το don’t γίνεται NOT TO

Exercise.

1. “Please don’t be late!” Mary said to Julia.

____Mary told (asked) Julia not to be late._____

2. “Put this book back on the table,” Tom’s father said.

___Tom’s father told him to put the book back on the table._____

3. “Never play with matches again!” the fireman said to the children.

___The fireman told the children never to play with matches again.____

4. “Call me when the enemy attack!” said the general to his adjutant.

____The general told (ordered) his adjutant to call him when the enemy attacked.____

5. ‘Don’t disturb me unless it is something very important,” said my boss.

_____My boss told me not to disturb him unless it was something very important._____

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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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