The Gerund


Gerunds

Έχουμε δει γερούνδια ως

1. υποκείμενα μιας πρότασης
  • Skate-boarding can be dangerous.
  • Swimming is a very healthy sport.
  • Catching butterflies is cruel.

2. αντικείμενα ενός ρήματος

  • I enjoy water-skiing.
  • I love swimming.
The Gerunds

The Gerunds

Exercise.

Replace the Infinitive with a Gerund.

1. To watch children growing is a rewarding experience.

Watching children growing is ……..

2. To water-ski is not so easy as it looks.

Water-skiing is not ………

3. Anything is better than to sit here doing nothing.

Anything is better than sitting here ……….

4. To park your car on either side of a pedestrian crossing is forbidden.

Parking your car …….

5. My favourite pastime is to collect train numbers.

My favourite pasttime is collecting ………….

3. αντικείμενα μιας πρόθεσης

a. He watched television instead of doing his homework. 

b. I am fond of wind-surfing.

Ακολουθούν μερικά επίθετα και ρήματα με προθέσεις που συντάσσονται με γερούνδιο:

  • Accuse of
  • Afraid of
  • Apologise for
  • Approve of
  • Be accustomed to 
  • Be used to
  • Believe in
  • Capable of
  • Congratulate on
  • Dream of
  • Insist on
  • Interested in
  • to accuse of
  • to be fond of
  • to be keen on
  • to succeed in
  • to suspect of
  • to think of
  • Keen on
  • Look forward to
  • Object to
  • Persist in
  • Prevent from
  • Succeed in
  • Suspect of
  • Tired of

Εxercise.

Supply the missing prepositions.

1. John apologized ____for____________ standing on the fat lady’s toe.

2. I must remember to congratulate Mary ____on___________ passing

3. I didn’t know you were so fond _____of_________ walking.

4. I wonder why Jane is so keen ______on____________ meeting my brother?

5. At last he succeeded _____in___________ reaching the top of the greasy pole.

4. Επίσης έχουμε δει ρήματα αρέσκειας και απ(δυσ)αρέσκειας να ακολουθούνται από απαρέμφατο όταν πρόκειται για ειδική περίπτωση και γερούνδιο όταν πρόκειται για γενική κατάσταση.

  •  I like playing chess but just now I’d prefer to watch a film.
  • I love watching T.V. but tonight I’d like to read my new book.
  • He often begins day-dreaming during his history lesson.
  • As soon as he fell asleep, he began to dream of pirates.

Exercise.

Choose the correct form of the verb, Gerund or Infinitive.

1. I generally prefer (ski) to (skate) but today I’d like (skate) for a change. _________skiing_______skating________to skate_______________

Which would you prefer (do) this morning, children? (Go) to the sea or (visit) the science Museum? ________________________________________________________

3. Some young children hate (be) helped while others hate (do) anything themselves. ____________________________________________________________

4. Oh, surely it’s not raining? It’s the children’s picnic today. I’d hate (disappoint) them. _________________________________________________

5. Yes, I do like (play) chess but just now I’d like (do) something more active. ______________________________________________________

5. Επίσης όταν το υποκείμενο του γερουνδίου είναι διαφορετικό από το υποκείμενο του κυρίως ρήματος, χρησιμοποιούμε ή το αντικείμενο ή τον κτητικό τύπο του ουσιαστικού ή αντωνυμίας.

  • I disapproved of my son (my son’s) riding a motorcycle.

Σε μερικές περιπτώσεις η χρήση του γερουνδίου ή απαρεμφάτου μετά από ένα ρήμα, αλλάζει την σημασία του.

1. remember and forget

Με αυτά τα ρήματα, το γερούνδιο αναφέρεται σε μια πράξη η οποία έχει είχε συμβεί πριν θυμηθούμε κάτι.

  • That’s funny, I can’t remember putting my keys here.
  • She distinctly remembered having locked the door before she left but now it was open.
  • Don’t tell me you have forgotten signing this contract?

The Infinitive refers to an action that has or had not yet occurred.

  • He remembered to post his wife’s letter.
  • I hope you won’t forget to phone the bank manager.

2. regret

Το ΄γερούνδιο αναφέρεται σε μία πράξη η οποία έχει ή είχε συμβεί.

e.g. I now regret changing jobs. ( I wish I had not )

Το απαρέμφατο αναφέρεται σε μία πράξη η οποία στην οποία το υποκείμενο πρόκειται ή επρόκειτο να δράσει.

e.g. We regret to inform you that your son has been killed in action.( we areunhappy to have to do so)

3. try

Όταν ακολουθείται από γερούνδιο το try σημαίνει πείραμα.

e.g. I tried mixing whiskey with vodka – with disastrous results!

Όταν ακολουθείται από απαρέμφατο, το try σημαίνει απλά προσπάθεια.

e.g. I tried to climb the tree but failed.

4. stop

Ένα γερούνδιο μετά από το stop δείχνει ότι η πράξη τελειώνει.

e.g. He stopped (talking) to take a drink of water.

Λίγα σημεία ακόμη που πρέπει να θυμόμαστε.

5. mind

  • Would ……….. mind …….
  • Would you mind opening the window? = Please open it.
  • Would you mind my opening the window?= May I open it?
  • Would John mind picking me up from the station? = Will he please …
  • Would John mind my borrowing his bicycle? = Will he object …..

6. fancy

Αυτό μπορεί να έχει διαφορετικές σημασίες.

  • Fancy meeting you here! = What a surprise to meet you here.
  • Fancy (για φαντάσου!!)Tom passing the exam! = I am surprised he did.
  • I don’t fancy spending the whole weekend with the Joneses. = The idea doesn’t appeal to me.

7. feel like = desire, want

e.g. I feel like going for a swim.

8. can’t help = cannot avoid

e.g. I couldn’t help laughing.

9. need and want

Με αυτά τα ρήματα το γερούνδιο έχει παθητική σημασία

a. Your shoes need cleaning.

b. This coat wants mending.

Exercise.

Put the verbs in their correct form, Gerund or Infinitive.

1. Mr. Green now regrets (buy) a caravan.

_____________regrets buying ________________________

2. Can’t you get that stain out? Have you tried (use) turps?

_____________tried using ___________________________

3. I’m sorry but I forgot (buy) a newspaper.

_____________forgot to buy __________________________

4. On the way home I stopped (buy) a newspaper.

_____________stopped to buy _________________________

5. I regret (do) this, Lawson, but I have no choice. Your work is not good enough.

_____________regret to do  ___________________________________

6. Please remember (turn) off the lights and (lock) the door before you leave.

_____________remember to turn off and lock _____________________

7. Mary fell from her horse while trying (jump) a fence.

_____________trying to jump _________________________________

8. Look! He’s already forgotten (promise) me not to ride without hands.

_____________forgotten promising _____________________________

9. Do you remember (invite) the Johnsons, dear? No? Well, they have just telephoned to say they are on the way.

_____________remember inviting ________________

10. Which do you prefer (do) this evening? (Ski) or (water-ski)

_____________prefer doing ____________________

11. One day he will regret (treat) me so cruelly.

_____________regret treating _______

12. When you stop (behave) like a child, I’ll start (treat) you like an adult.

_____________stop behaving _______start treating ________

13. Which would you prefer (do) this evening? (Go out) or (stay) at home?

_____________prefer to do  __________Go out or stay ________

14.a. Question: I haven’t been sleeping very well lately.

_______________________________________

14.b. Answer: Oh, really? Have you tried (sleep) without a pillow?

____________tried sleeping ______________________

4. Αφού το Γερούνδιο είναι ρήμα μπορεί να έχει επίσης το δικό του υποκείμενο.

Αν το υποκείμενο αυτό είναι διαφορετικό από το υποκείμενο του ρήματος που προηγείται, τότε πρέπει να διαμορφώνεται όπως δείχνεται στα παραδείγματα:

  • I apologise for disturbing you. (Same subject)
  • I can remember opening the door but I can’t recall closing it.

Exercise.

Re-express these sentences using a Gerund.

1. I’m sorry I’m late, said John.

___ I apologise for being late.__________________________

2. I can’t wait for Christmas to come.

___I look forward to Christmas coming._________________

3. Tom is not clever enough to pass this exam.

___Tom is not capable (enough) of passing this exam._____

4. I don’t think it is right to borrow or lend money.

___I don’t believe in borrowing or lending money.________

5. Rita has at last managed to get a job.

___Rita has (at last) succeeded in getting a job.__________

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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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