C O R R E L A T I V E C L A U S E S / Συνδετικά στοιχεία
“both…and,” / “either…or,” / “neither…nor,” / “not only…but also,” / “so…as,” / “whether…or.”
Μερικές φορές επιθυμούμε να δείξουμε ότι δύο διαφορετικοί άνθρωποι έκαναν την ίδια πράξη
το ίδιο πρόσωπο ή πρόσωπα έδρασαν με δύο διαφορετικούς τρόπους
έκαναν δύο διαφορετικά πράγματα
έκαναν το ίδιο πράγμα σε δύο διαφορετικούς χρόνους
σε δύο διαφορετικά μέρη.
Δίνουμε έμφαση σε αυτές τις διαφορές ή ομοιότητες χρησιμοποιώντας Correlative Conjuctions (συνδετικά στοιχεία).
1. Both ……………………………. and ……………………..
- Last night both Williams and Walker broke the world record.
- Soon he could both speak and write French well.
- Everybody finished both the précis and the letter.
- They spoke English both fluently and correctly.
- The police found blood both on his hands and on his clothes.
- He visited his family both at Christmas and at Easter.
Εδώ πρέπει να προσέξετε δύο σημεία.
1. if there are two subjects, the verb must be in the Plural.
- Both John and Peter play for the school team.
2. Οι σύνδεσμοι πρέπει να προηγούνται των μερών της πρότασης που ειναι υπό συσχετισμό ( correlated parts ).
- Mary both worked hard at school and at home. WRONG
- Mary worked hard both at school and at home. RIGHT
Να συνδέσετε τα ακόλουθα ζεύγη προτάσεων χρησιμοποιώντας συνδετικά στοιχεία.
1. My brother Paul can play the guitar. He can also play the drums.
a. My brother Paul can play both the guitar and the drums .
b. ___My brother Paul can play not only the guitar but the drums as well. ___
c. ή με αναστροφή(inversion): Not only can my brother Paul play the guitar but the drums as well.
2. Cholera has appeared in Asia. It has appeared in Europe, too.
3. My wife and I swim in summer. We also swim in winter.
4. The thieves took her money. They took her fur coat, too.
5. Our neighbours make a lot of noise. They also neglect their garden.
2. Not only …………… but also …………
Not only …………… but ……..…………… as well
Αυτοί οι σύνδεσμοι δίνουν περισσότερη έμφαση στη δεύτερη από τις συσχετιζόμενες ιδέες.
- Nowadays not only the rich but also the poor enjoy many comforts.
- They not only clapped but asked him to sing again as well.
- My secretary knows not only shorthand and typing but also four languages.
- The new machine works not only economically but efficiently as well.
Answer the following questions as indicated:
Question: Did John only go to London? (Paris as well)
Answer: No. He went not only to London but to Paris as well.
1. Are you only learning typing? (shorthand as well)
2. Did the thief take your briefcase? (camera as well)
3. Does she only look after the children? (help with the housework as well)
4. Have you done only the washing (the ironing as well)
5. Must a teacher speak only slowly? (also clearly)
3. Neither ………………….. nor ………….
Αυτό το ζευγάρι συνδέσμων είναι ο αρνητικός τύπος του ” both…………..and“.
- Neither Paul nor Pat came to the party.
- She likes neither tea nor coffee.
- My little brother can neither read nor write.
- The teams played neither with skill nor with enthusiam.
- We could reach him neither at his home nor at his office.
- Because of the weather we had games neither on Monday nor on Tuesday.
As with ‘both …………… and’ the conjuctions must come directly before the correlated words or phrases. If the subjects are correlated, however, the verb will agree with the nearest subject.
- Neither my father nor my mother smokes.
- Neither the letters nor the parcel has arrived yet.
A very common mistake is to double the negative, that is to use a negative verb as well as the negative conjuction.
They didn’t go neither to the cinema nor to the theatre. (WRONG)
In English one negative cancels the other and the sentence becomes affirmative. There are two correct forms.
- They went neither to the cinema nor to the theatre.
- They didn’t go either to the cinema or to the theatre.
Join the following pairs of simple sentences to form correlative sentences.
Question: Pam doesn’t love you. She doesn’t love me, either.
Answer: Pam loves neither you nor me.
1. There are no bears in England. There aren’t any wolves, either.
2. My uncle didn’t catch any fish today. My father didn’t , either.
3. I haven’t seen him on T.V. I haven’t seen him in films, either.
4. He doesn’t speak very clearly. He doesn’t speak very slowly, either.
5. Mr. Davies hasn’t been to Spain. He hasn’t been to Portugal, either.