By and the Perfect Tenses


By and the Perfect Tenses     (Η σχέση της λέξης  by και των Perfect χρόνων)

Όταν έχουμε τη λέξη BY το κύριο ρήμα πρέπει να είναι σε κάποιο Perfect χρόνο:

Past Perfect, Present Perfect or Future Perfect σύμφωνα με το νόημα.

e.g.

Last night I had finished my homework by 7 o’clock. (απλός υπερσυντέλικος)

I have usually finished my homework by 7 o’clock every night. ( απλός παρακείμενος)

I hope that I shall have finished my homework by 6 o’clock tomorrow night because I want to go to the cinema. ( μέλλοντας τετελεσμένος)

Η ουσία ποια είναι;

Στη φράση:

Μέχρι την άλλη Παρασκευή θα σου έχω επιστρέψει τα χρήματα που σου χρωστώ.’

ή  λέξη μέχρι στην αγγλική είναι: by

Άρα:

By next Friday I will have returned the money I owe you.

Άλλο παράδειγμα:

‘Μέχρι να κοιμηθεί το μωρό χτες το βράδυ, είχα πιει δύο φλυτζάνια καφέ.’

η λέξη μέχρι είναι: by

By the time the baby went to sleep last night, I had already had (drunk) two cups of coffee.

Ως τη μία το μεσημέρι έχω συνήθως κάνει όλες τις δουλειές του σπιτιού.’

η λέξη ως είναι: by

By one o’clock in the afternoon I have usually done all the housework.

Exercise.

Put the verbs into the appropriate Perfect Tense.

1. My wife always takes so long to get ready that by the time we reach the cinema the film usually (start).

___  has started _____

2. If you don’t hurry, dear, the film (start) by the time we get to the cinema.

___  will have started _____

3. We missed the beginning of the film last night because by the time we got to the cinema the film (already start).

____  had already started _____

4. The first rain (usually fall) by the end of September.

____ has fallen ______

5. By the end of this month we (save) up enough to buy a car.

____will have saved ______

_______________________________________________

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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

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