The Personal Passive construction
a. THE IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION
e.g. It is said that Mr. Jackson stole the money.
b. THE PERSONAL CONSTRUCTION
- Mr. Jackson is said to have stolen the money.
Note and learn these corresponding forms:
- They say that Tom cheats — Tom is said to cheat
- They say that Tom is cheating — Tom is said to be cheating
- They say that Tom cheated— Tom is said to have cheated
- They say that Tom has stolen — Tom is said to have stolen
- They say that Tom has been stealing. — Tom is said to have been stealing
- They say that Tom had stolen — Tom is said to have stolen
- They say that Tom will steal — Tom is said to be going to steal
Re-write these sentences, using the Personal Passive Construction.
1. People think that this dog is dangerous.
___This dog is thought to be dangerous_____________
2. They believe the old lady is insane.
____The old lady is believed to be insane____________
3. Everybody knows that the water in the river is contaminated.
____The water in the river is known to be contaminated ______
4. People believe that Kennedy avoided a third world war.
____Kennedy is believed to have avoided a third world war_____
5. Customers find that the new model is well-designed and economical to run.
_____The new model is found to be well-designed and economical to run____
Re-write using the Personal Passive.
1. Many scientists believe that the universe is expanding.
____The universe is believed to be expanding (by many scientists)_______
2. They say that French wine is the best.
____French wine is said to be the best________
3. Some people consider that the Russians have more dangerous weapons than the Americans.
____The Russians are considered to have more dangerous weapons than the Americans_______
4. Doctors claim that penicillin saved millions of lives in the last war.
____Penicillin is claimed to have saved millions of lives in the last war_______
5. The newspapers say that the price of gold is going up again.
____The price of gold is said be going up again______
Put into the Passive Voice using the Personal Construction.
1. People say that money is not everything.
____Money is said not to be everything_______
2. The police suspect that John Gibbs stole the money.
____John Gibs is suspected to have stolen the money_________
3. They think that Dr. Brown is the best doctor in the town.
_____Dr. Brown is thought to be the best doctor in town_______
4. Everybody knows that smoking causes cancer.
_____Smoking is known to cause cancer___________________
5. The newspapers reported that President Kennedy had been assassinated.
_____President Kennedy is reported to have have been assassinated_____