Conditionals (Without ‘If’)


CONDITIONALS ( Without IF’)

Όπως, ήδη γνωρίζετε, έχουμε αναλύσει, στο Grammar 1, τους τρεις βασικούς υποθετικούς λόγους στους οποίους το μόριο IF είναι βασικό στοιχείο. Βέβαια, υπάρχουν και άλλοι σύνδεσμοι και φράσεις όπως:

  • only if
  • unless
  • even though
  • even if
  • whether or not
  • providing/provided that 
  • on condition that
  • as long as και on the understanding that

που εισάγουν υποθετικές προτάσεις.

Συνήθως, όμως, η πλειοψηφία των υποθετικών προτάσεων, στα επίπεδα Β2 και C2, σχηματίζεται με το IF.

If only I had money...

If only I had money…

Αναφέρω μερικά παραδείγματα:

If Mary comes, we will go for a walk in the park.  (1ος τύπος, εκφράζει πιθανότητα για το παρόν/μέλλον)

If Mary came, we would go for a walk in the park. (2ος τύπος, εκφράζει φανταστική υπόθεση για το παρόν/μέλλον). Εδώ βλέπετε την αντίθεση δηλ. έχουμε came  και would (simple past και τα δύο ρήματα) ενώ εννοούμε κάτι για το παρόν ή/και το μέλλον.

If Mary had come, we would have gone for a walk in the park. (3ος τύπος, εκφράζει φανταστική υπόθεση για το παρελθόν)

Όμως υπάρχουν και άλλοι υποθετικοί λόγοι χωρίς το IF.

Να προσέξετε, ιδιαίτερα, τις αντιστοιχίες των υποθετικών λόγων με IF και χωρίς IF.

A. If it rains, we will not go out.

Should it rain, we will not go out.

Ο 1oς τύπος, εκφράζει πιθανότητα στο παρόν/μέλλον

B. If it rained, we would not go out.

Were to rain, we would not go out.

(2ος τύπος, εκφράζει φανταστική υπόθεση στο παρόν/μέλλον.)

C. If it had rained, we would have gone out.

Had it rained, we would have gone out.

3ος τύπος, εκφράζει φανταστική πιθανότητα στο παρελθόν.

Συμπέρασμα:

Οι λέξεις Should / Were to / και ο υπερσυντέλικος αντεστραμμένος δηλ. στην ερωτηματική του μορφή είναι χαρακτηριστικά μέρη των τριών υποθετικών λόγων χωρίς IF.

Μερικά ακόμα παραδείγματα:

Should Tom pass his driving test, his mother will be very happy.

  • Were Tom to pass his driving test, his mother would be very happy.
  • Had Tom passed his driving test, his mother would have been very happy.

Εxercises/Examples

Form these conditions in all three types without IF.

1. If anyone (call), I (pretend) to be out.

(1st Type)  Should anyone call, I will pretend to be out.  (χωρίς ‘s’ το ρήμα call)

2. If a storm (blow) up, we (be) in trouble.

(2nd Type)  Were a storm to blow up, we would be in trouble.

3. If they (raise) the price, we (not be able) to afford it.

(3rd Type) Had they raised the price, we wouldn’t have been able to afford it.

4. If I (meet) any problems, I (ask) your advice.

(1st Type) Should I meet any problems, I will ask your advice.

  • (2nd Type) Were I to meet any problems, I would ask your advice.
  • (3rd Type) Had I met any problems, I would have asked your advice.

5. If it (rain), we (get) soaked.

(1st Type) Should it rain, we will get soaked.

  • (2nd Type) Were it to rain, we would get soaked.
  • (3rd Type) Had it rained, we would have got soaked.

Και τώρα οι ίδιες ασκήσεις της (5) με if:

(1st Type) If it rains, we will get soaked.

  • (2nd Type) If it rained, we would get soaked.
  • (3rd Type) If it had rained, we would have got soaked.

 

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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged , . Bookmark the permalink.

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