Inversion


INVERSION

Type 1

Στην Αγγλική υπάρχουν κάποιες αρνητικές λέξεις ή φράσεις οι οποίες αν τοποθετηθούν στην αρχή ή στο εσωτερικό (στη μέση) τότε το ρήμα παίρνει ερωτηματική μορφή. Μερικές από αυτές τις λέξεις / φράσεις είναι:

  • hardly…..when
  • scarcely….when
  • scarcely 
  • only by, only then, not till, only in this way, only when 
  • never
  • rarely 
  • seldom
  • on no condition
  • under no circumstances
  • on no account
  • no sooner …. than

e.g.

  • I had no sooner got into bed than the telephone rang.

but

  • No sooner had I got into bed than the telephone rang.
  • You must not be late on any account.
  • On no account must you be late.
  • Rarely have I seen such chaos.
  • Only then will he realise the truth.

Type 2

Εδώ, στον δεύτερο τύπο, έχουμε δύο λέξεις, τις εμφατικές so και such, οι οποίες επίσης αντιστρέφουν το ρήμα από καταφατική μορφή σε ερωτηματική πχ.

e.g.

  • So surprised was he that he couldn’t say a word.
  • Such was the shock that she fainted.

Type 3

Στον τρίτο τύπο συναντούμε επιρήματα κατεύθυνσης (adverbs of direction). Μερικά απ’αυτά είναι:

  • in
  • out
  • up
  • down
  • round
  • over
  • back
  • forward
  • off κ.α.

αλλά μόνο όταν το υποκείμενο είναι ουσιαστικό και όχι όταν είναι αντωνυμία.

e.g.

  • The tree fell down with a crash.
  • Down fell the tree with a crash.

But

  • Down it fell with a crash.

Exercise.

Re-write these sentences with the words in italic at the beginning.

1. He rarely made mistakes like that.

___ Rarely did he make mistakes like that ________________

2. They had hardly set out when they had a flat tyre.

____ Hardly had they set out when they had a flat tyre ________

3. Their panic was such that many were trampled underfoot in the rush to leave the

building.

_____ Such was their panic that many  were trampled underfoot in the rush to leave the building ______

4. Jack realises only now how much Jane loved him.

_____ Only now does Jack realise how much Jane loved him ________

5. This species of butterfly is seldom found in Britain.

_____ Seldom is this species of butterfly found in Britain ___________

6. The traffic police had never seen such an unusual accident.

_____ Never had the traffic police seen such an unusual accident _______

7. I will only agree to marry her on one condition.

____Only on one condition will I agree to marry her.____

8. Mason would not betray his country under any circumstances.

____Under no circumstances would Mason betray his country.______

9. The ski-jumper shot up into the air like a giant bird.

______Up into the air shot the ski-jumper like a giant bird. _______

10. Jill was so happy that she started dancing round the room.

____So happy was Jill that she started dancing round the room. ______

11. The Spitfires had no sooner climbed into the air than they spotted the enemy

bombers approaching.

_____No sooner had the Spitfires climb into the air than they spotted bombers  approaching._________

12. The cork came out with a loud pop.

____ Out came the cork with a loud pop. ______

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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged , . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to Inversion

  1. Νεφέλη says:

    φοβερό blog!!

  2. Νεφέλη says:

    φοβερό blog….ευχαριστώ για την βοή8εια

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