Στην Αγγλική υπάρχουν κάποιες αρνητικές λέξεις ή φράσεις οι οποίες αν τοποθετηθούν στην αρχή ή στο εσωτερικό (στη μέση) τότε το ρήμα παίρνει ερωτηματική μορφή. Μερικές από αυτές τις λέξεις / φράσεις είναι:
- only by, only then, not till, only in this way, only when
- on no condition
- under no circumstances
- on no account
- no sooner …. than
- I had no sooner got into bed than the telephone rang.
- No sooner had I got into bed than the telephone rang.
- You must not be late on any account.
- On no account must you be late.
- Rarely have I seen such chaos.
- Only then will he realise the truth.
Εδώ, στον δεύτερο τύπο, έχουμε δύο λέξεις, τις εμφατικές so και such, οι οποίες επίσης αντιστρέφουν το ρήμα από καταφατική μορφή σε ερωτηματική πχ.
- So surprised was he that he couldn’t say a word.
- Such was the shock that she fainted.
Στον τρίτο τύπο συναντούμε επιρήματα κατεύθυνσης (adverbs of direction). Μερικά απ’αυτά είναι:
- off κ.α.
αλλά μόνο όταν το υποκείμενο είναι ουσιαστικό και όχι όταν είναι αντωνυμία.
- The tree fell down with a crash.
- Down fell the tree with a crash.
- Down it fell with a crash.
Re-write these sentences with the words in italic at the beginning.
1. He rarely made mistakes like that.
___ Rarely did he make mistakes like that ________________
2. They had hardly set out when they had a flat tyre.
____ Hardly had they set out when they had a flat tyre ________
3. Their panic was such that many were trampled underfoot in the rush to leave the
_____ Such was their panic that many were trampled underfoot in the rush to leave the building ______
4. Jack realises only now how much Jane loved him.
_____ Only now does Jack realise how much Jane loved him ________
5. This species of butterfly is seldom found in Britain.
_____ Seldom is this species of butterfly found in Britain ___________
6. The traffic police had never seen such an unusual accident.
_____ Never had the traffic police seen such an unusual accident _______
7. I will only agree to marry her on one condition.
____Only on one condition will I agree to marry her.____
8. Mason would not betray his country under any circumstances.
____Under no circumstances would Mason betray his country.______
9. The ski-jumper shot up into the air like a giant bird.
______Up into the air shot the ski-jumper like a giant bird. _______
10. Jill was so happy that she started dancing round the room.
____So happy was Jill that she started dancing round the room. ______
11. The Spitfires had no sooner climbed into the air than they spotted the enemy
_____No sooner had the Spitfires climb into the air than they spotted bombers approaching._________
12. The cork came out with a loud pop.
____ Out came the cork with a loud pop. ______