Participles


Participles

Ένα ρήμα έχει τέσσερις μετοχές.

ACTIVE : 

PRESENT: playing  / PERFECT: having played

PASSIVE:

PRESENT: being played / PERFECT: having been played

TYPE 1. SUBJECT 1 = SUBJECT 2

Μία μετοχή μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί για να αντικαταστήσει μία αιτιολογική ή χρονική πρόταση μόνο όταν το υποκείμενο του κυρίου ρήματος και το υποκείμενο της δευτερεύουσας πρότασης είναι το ίδιο.

e.g.

Tom (S1) felt ill. He (S2) went to see his doctor.

μπορεί να ξαναγραφτεί

Feeling ill, Tom went to see his doctor. REASON
e.g.
Tom (S1) took the medicine. He felt much better.
μπορεί να ξαναγραφτεί
Having taken the medicine, Tom felt much better. TIME
or
After having taken …….
After taking ……
Σημειώστε τη χρονική διαφορά μεταξύ μιας συμπληρωμένης πράξης και μιας τρέχουσας ή σχεδόν ταυτόχρονης πράξης.
e.g.
Taking quick aim, Tom pulled the trigger. but
Having taken careful aim, Tom gently pressed the trigger.
Exercise.
Connect the following sentences by using a Participle Construction.
1. I was going home. I met Jim
___Going home, I met Jim_____
2. I arrived at the station. I found Andrew waiting.
___Arriving at the station, I found Andrew waiting._____
3. She was looking for her book. She found an old photograph of yours.
____Looking for her book, she found an old photograph of yours._____
4. As I was signing the contract, I noticed there was a mistake in it.
____Signing the contract, I noticed there was a mistake in it._____
5. While she was waiting for her date, she made a new acquaintance.
_____Waiting for her date, she made a new acquaintance._______
TYPE 2. OBJECT 1 = SUBJECT 2
Εάν το υποκείμενο της δευτερεύουσας πρότασης (ή πρώτης ρότασης) και το υποκείμενο της κύριας πρότασης (ή δεύτερης πρότασης) είναι το ίδιο, τότε μπορούμε να χρησιμοποιήσουμε μία μετοχή αφού πρώτα μετατρέψουμε το προηγούμενο στην παθητική φωνή.
e.g.
The policeman told the old lady (O) of her son’s death. She (S) fainted.
The old lady was told of her son’s death by the policeman. She fainted.
Εδώ τώρα έχουμε Υποκείμενο 1 = Υποκείμενο 2
Having been told of her son’s death by the policeman, the old lady fainted.
ή
On being told of her son’s death by the policeman, the old …………… .
Η πρόθεση on σε συνεργασία με ενεργητική μετοχή μας δίνει το as soon as (μόλις)
δηλαδή
On – Present Participle = As soon as
Exercise.
Re-write or join these pairs of sentences using the Passive Participle as above.
1. The policeman showed Mrs. Halliday the blood-stained coat. She gave a cry of horror.
_____Having been shown the blood-stained coat, Mrs. Halliday gave a cry of horror.____
2. As soon as my father gave me my pocket money, I rushed out to buy a kite.
____Being given my pocket money, I rushed out to buy a kite._____
3. When the police arrested Finlay, he at once confessed to the crime.
____Being arrested by the police, Finlay at once confessed to the crime.___
4. After Jim had repaired the bicycle, it was as good as new.
____Having been repaired by Jim, the bicycle was as good as new.____
5. His parents promised him a holiday in England, so Leslie worked much harder.
____Having been promised a holiday in England (by his parents), Leslie worked much harder._____
TYPE 3. The ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION
Οπου δεν υπάρχει αντιστοιχία μεταξύ του υποκειμένου ή αντικειμένου της δευτερεύουσας (ή πρώτης) πρότασης και το υποκείμενο της κύριας  (ή δεύτερης) πρότασης, τότε η χρήση μιας μετοχής είναι ακόμα πιθανή, με την προυπόθεση ότι θα χρησιμοποιήσουμε το Absolute Construction ( απόλυτος γενική).
e.g.
As the weather was awful, we canceled our outing.
γίνεται
The weather being awful, we canceled our outing.
Σημείωση:
Να προσέξετε τη σειρά των λέξεων εδώ – η ρηματική μετοχή ποτέ δεν προηγείται του  Absolute Construction, αλλά ακολουθείται ακριβώς η ίδια σειρά λέξεων όπως και στην αρχική πρόταση.
e.g.
There was no reply, so I assumed they were out.
becomes
There being no reply, I assumed they were out.
Exercise.
Re-write using the Absolute Construction.
1. The bus crews were on strike, so we had to walk to work.
_____The bus crews being on strike, we had to walk to work._____
2. There was no time to lose, so I booked a seat on the first plane to Zurich.
____There being no time to lose, I booked a seat on the first plane to Zurich._____
3. As the weather had improved, we did not need our umbrellas.
_____The weather having improved, we did not need our umbrella.____
4. The hotel bed was much softer than my own and I found it difficult to sleep.
____The hotel bed being much softer than my own, I found it difficult to sleep.____
5. It was a Bank Holiday and the roads were absolutely choked with traffic.
____It being a Bank Holiday, the roads were absolutely choked with traffic._____
TYPE 4. RELATIVE PARTICIPLES
Οι μετοχές μπορούν επίσης να αντικαθιστούν συγκεκριμένες αναφορικές προτάσεις.
a. Defining Relative Clauses.
Εάν το ρήμα της Αναφορικής πρότασης είναι παθητικό ή αμετάβατο σε χρόνο διαρκείας τότε μπορούμε να
1. αφαιρέσουμε την αναφορική αντωνυμία
2. αφαιρέσουμε το/τα βοηθητικό/ά ρήμα/τα
e.g.
The man who was knocked down by a bus in University Street yesterday morning died in hospital last night.
μπορεί να ξαναγραφτεί
The man knocked down by a bus in University Street yesterday morning died in hospital last night.
e.g.
An operation which lasts four hours leaves the surgeon physically exhausted.
An operation lasting four hours leaves the surgeon physically exhausted.
e.g.
The government introduced a new law which increased the penalties for traffic offences.
μπορεί να ξαναγραφτεί
The government introduced a new law increasing the penalties for traffic offences.
b. Non-defining Relative Clauses.
Εδώ η διαδικασία είναι ακριβώς η ίδια όπως η προηγούμενη εκτός από εκείνη όπου το υπόλοιπο της αναφορικής πρότασης μεταφέρεται στην αρχή της πρότασης.
e.g.
Our village church, which was built in the 15th century, is still in remarkably good condition.
γίνεται
Built in the 15th century, our village church is still in remarkably good condition.
e.g.
Prince Charles’s tour of the Far East, which lasted one month, was the longest he has undertaken so far.
γίνεται
Lasting one month, Prince Charles’s tour of the Far East was the longest he has undertaken so far.
Exercise.
Replace the following Relative Clauses with Participle Constructions.
1. The bridge which has been built across the estuary cut miles off our journey.
____Having been built across the estuary, the bridge cut miles off our journey.____
2. The Firth Of Forth Railway Bridge, which measures almost two miles from end to
end, requires three years to paint.
____Measuring almost two miles from end to end, the Firth Of Forth Railway Bridge requires three years to paint._____
3. The medicine which was prescribed by the specialist in London soon cured my
friend’s ulcer.
____Being prescribed by the specialist in London,  the medicine soon cured my friend’s ulcer.____
4. The five Indians who were caught entering the country illegally last week were
yesterday sent back to their country.
____Caught entering the country illegally, the five Indians were yesterday sent back to their country._____
5. Miss Irene Scliva, who was elected Miss Greece ‘95 at last night’s Beauty Contest
at the Hilton Hotel, will represent Greece in the Miss World Contest next month.
_____Elected Miss Greece ’95 at last night’s Beauty Contest at the Hilton Hotel, Miss Irene Scliva will represent Greece in the Miss World Contest next month.____
Exercise.
Re-write using a Participle Construction.
1. I felt very tired so I went to bed early.
_____Feeling very tired, I went to bed early._____
2. There was no hope of finding the children in the dark, so the search was called off.
____There being no hope of finding the children in the dark, the search was called off.____
3. As soon as he was told about the enemy attack, the Prime Minister called a Cabinet meeting.
____Being told about the enemy attack, the Prime Minister called a Cabinet meeting._____
4. After he had discovered the cause of the trouble, the mechanic put it right and the
engine started at once.
____Having discoverd the cause of the trouble, the mechanic put it right and the engine started at once.____
5. He considered the various possibilities and finally decided to spend his holidays
in Bulgaria.
____Considering the various possibilities,  he finally decided to spend his holidays in Bulgaria.____
Exercise.
Re-write the following subordinate clauses using Participles.
1. As soon as John opened the safe, he saw the plans were missing.
____Opening the safe, John saw the plans were missing._____
2. After the officer had given them their orders, the soldiers set off.
____Having been given their orders, the soldiers set off._____
3. Because the pond was frozen, the ducks had nowhere to swim.
_____The pond being frozen, the ducks had nowhere to swim._____
4. Because I had spent all my pocket money, I could not go to the cinema.
____Having spent all my pocket money, I could not go to the cinema.___
5. While I was making toast, I burned my finger.
___Making toast, I burned my finger.____
Exercise.
Re-write using a Participle Construction.
1. Mrs. Brown washed the clothes and then hung them out to dry.
____Having washed the clothes, Mrs. Brown hung them out to dry._____
2. Tom bought his ticket and then waited for the train to come.
____Having bought his ticket, Tom waited for the train to come.___
3. There were no empty seats on the train so he had to stand.
____There being no empty seats on the train, he had to stand.__
4. When he reached the top of the hill, Dick stopped to enjoy the view.
___Having reached the top of the hill, Dick stopped to enjoy the view.____
5. As I had not had any breakfast, I soon began to feel hungry.
_____Having not had any breakfast, I soon began to feel hungry.____
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About Nick Papadodimas

Independent E-Learning English Professional
This entry was posted in Nick's Grammar and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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