Clauses of Concession
CLAUSES OF CONCESSION (Παραχωρητικές προτάσεις)
Λέξεις και φράσεις όπως
in spite of the fact that
despite the fact that
no matter + (who, where, why, when, which, whose, how)
χρησιμοποιούνται για να δώσουμε μεγαλύτερη έμφαση σε μια αντίθεση.
Τα concessive clauses μπορούν να τοποθετηθούν στην αρχή μιας πρότασης ή εσωτερικά (στο μέσον) για να εκφράσουν κάτι το οποίον συμβαίνει κατά παραχώρηση και σε αντίθεση προς αυτό που δηλώνει το ρήμα της πρότασης από την οποία εξαρτάται πχ. Θα βγω έξω, ακόμη κι αν βρέχει. (Μπαμπινιώτης 2η έκδοση 2002).
Αν τοποθετήσουμε την παραχωρητική πρόταση στο τέλος της πρότασης, ο ομιλητής παραδέχεται ότι υπάρχει κάποιο πρόβλημα με το συγκεκριμένο επιχείρημα.
I tried hard to cut down on bread, though it seemed impossible.
Περισσότερα γενικά παραδείγματα:
Αν και η Μαρία τελείωσε το λύκειο πολλά χρόνια πριν, θυμάται πολλά πράγματα!
Although Mary finished school a long time ago, she still remenbers a lot of things!
Αν και είμαι νέος, γνωρίζω πάρα πολλά!
Despite the fact that I am young, I am very knowledgeable!
Αντί να πούμε:
Although it was raining, we enjoyed our walk.
Even though it was raining, we enjoyed our walk.
Though it was raining, we enjoyed our walk.
μπορούμε να πούμε
In spite of the fact that it was raining, we enjoyed our walk.
Despite the fact that it was raining, we enjoyed our walk.
Even if John is tired, he is always willing to help.
However tired John is, he is always willing to help.
No matter how tired John is, he is always willing to help.
Tired though he is, John is always willing to help.
Tired as he is, John is still willing to help.
However fast he drives, he won’t get there in time.
No matter who he is, I am too busy to see him.
No matter when he arrives, I want to see him at once.
Re-write as indicated and then suggest alternatives.
1. He may be stupid but he can’t believe the earth is really flat.
No matter how stupid he is, he can’t believe the earth is flat.
2. He tried hard but he couldn’t undo the knot.
However hard he tried, he couldn’t undo the knot.
3. He is very rich but he can’t afford to buy this villa.
Rich as he is, he can’t afford tio buy this villa.
4. You can take a taxi but you won’t get to the station on time.
Even if you take a taxi, you won’t get to the station on time.
5. He was confined to a wheel-chair but managed to climb to the top of Mount Fuji.
In spite of the fact that he was confined to a wheel-chair, he managed to reach to the top of Mount Fuji.
6. I don’t care how much it costs. I am going to buy one.
No matter how much it costs, I am going to buy one.
7. Don’t take any notice of what he says now. He’ll agree in the end.
No matter what he says now, he’ll agree in the end.
8. She may sing beautifully but I don’t think she will win the competition.
However beautifully she sings, I don’t think she will win the competition.
9. You may fail but you must not give up trying.
Even if you fail, you mustn’t give up trying.
10. It doesn’t matter where he is hiding. I shall find him.
No matter where he is hiding, I shall find him.