By – αυτή η μικροσκοπική λέξη (πρόθεση αλλά και επίρρημα) έχει πολλές χρήσεις.

  1. όχι αργότερα από / ‘πριν’ / ‘ακριβώς
  •  Μy mum has usually cooked lunch by 12.00.
  • Our children were asleep by 10.30 every night.
  • When I was young I had to be home by 11.00 o’clock at night.
  1. όταν υπολογίζουμε ηλικίες
  • My wife is younger than me by two years.
  • Mike is older than Jamie by three years.

    Stand by Me (song)

    Stand by Me (song) 

  1. στην Παθητική φωνή
  • I have always been attracted by people who go against the grain.
  • My old friend, Tom, was hit by a car. Thank God he’s all right.
  • People do amazing things by thinking outside the box.
  1. δίπλα (μου)
  • Come and sit by me. It’s warm here.
  • I won’t cry, I won’t cry, no I won’t shed a tear

Just as long as you stand by me, stand by me. (Ben E. King)

  • My family have stood by me through thick and thin (σημαίνει: στα δύσκολα).
  1. 5. ‘με λεωφορείο’, ‘με ταξί’, ’με αεροπλάνο’, ‘με αυτοκίνητο’ ‘με πλοίο’
  • by bus, by taxi, by plane/by air, by car, by ship
  1. μόνος/μόνη
  • She brought up her three children by herself.
  • They managed to find the way out of the jungle by themselves.
  • My child always does his homework by himself.
  1. πως συμβαίνει/γίνεται κάτι
  • They met by accident
  • They paid by cash.
  • It happened by accident.
  • I ask my students to learn things by heart.
  • I often contact my friends by phone.
  1. κοντά σε κάποιο χώρο’
  • The boys cycled by the park.
  • In the summer, we usually go up by the river.
  • I love having picnics by the lake.
  1. ‘στο … μέτρημα’
  • I am taller than my sister by ten centimeters.
  • Our flat is bigger than yours by fifteen square metres.
  1. αποταμιεύω’ (!!)
  • Mary used to put a little money by every week for her holidays.
  • People don’t put money by these days. Life has become too expensive.
  • It’s always a good thing to put money by for a rainy day.
  1. για πράγματα …που έφυγαν’
  • My youthful years have gone by!
  • Five years have gone by since that hell day.
  • My youth went by in what seems like no time at all.
  • When you are a child time goes by so slowly.
  1. ‘όταν δίνουμε πληροφορίες για κάποιον (καταγωγή, χαρακτήρα, εργασία κτλ.)
  • Sheila is known to be, by nature, an intelligent and happy young lady.
  • My wife is English by birth.
  • I am an optimist by nature.
  1. πως πληρώνονται οι εργαζόμενοι’
  • A growing number of people are paid by the hour these days.
  • Baby sitters are usually paid by the hour.
  • Some lawyers are paid by the minute.
  1. ‘Πως ενοικιάζουμε αυτοκίνητα’
  • Our customers usually hire cars by the week.
  • I like to hire a car by the day because I never know how long I will need it.
  1. μέσω’
  • I keep fit by means of long, daily exercise.
  • You can combat boredom by means of long leisurely walks.
  • You can get a university degree by means of hard study.
  • One can get familiar with the sound of English by means of listening to songs.
  1. ταξιδεύοντας’
  • We went to Kalamata by way of Tripoli.
  • I went from Greece to England by air.
  • I went from Athens to Salonika by road.
  • I am travelling to Egypt mainly by sea.
  1. βρίσκοντας γιατρό
  • My brother found this doctor by way of a recommendation.
  • I would rather go to a doctor by way of a recommendation.
  1. ‘σαν αστείο’
  • Don’t take any notice of him! He said it by way of a joke!
  • He said what he wanted by way of a joke but we all knew he wasn’t joking.
  1. ‘επικοινωνώντας’
  • The Red Indians communicated over long distances by means of smoke signals.
  • Most people communicated by means of letters and phone calls before the 1970s.
  • Tribes in Africa communicated by means of drum beats.
  1. ‘σε αγώνες…δρόμου’
  • I beat my opponent in the running race by one metre.

About Nick Papadodimas

Community Blogger
This entry was posted in πωςλέγεται and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to By…

  1. Antonios says:

    Εξαιρετικό blog!

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